Pyrolysis oil, often referred to as bio-oil, is fuel produced from organic, bio-based raw material. It is a dark brown liquid produced through the gasification of biomass in oxygen-free conditions; the gasified components then are condensed into a liquid.

The end product, bio-oil, has many advantages over solid wood fuels or biomasses. The energy density based on its net calorific value is significantly higher, and transporting and handling are easier and more cost-efficient. Bio-oil can directly replace the use of fossil fuel oils in energy production.

In 2009, the ASTM D7544 -09 standard specifying the physical and chemical requirements for bio-oils (pyrolysis oils) produced from biomass and intended for industrial burners was published. The specification can be utilized in pyrolysis purchase agreements and in advising users.

The table below presents the values produced with GFN bio-oil compared to the standard’s values.

Bio-oil property Unit Test method Standard’s
bio-oil values
Higher heat value MJ/kg ASTM D240 15 min 18,2
Bio-oil’s solid content wt % ASTM D7544 2,5 max 0,20
Water content wt % ASTM E203 30 max 21
Acidity pH ASTM E70 Report 2,6
Kinematic viscosity cSt (40 oC) ASTM D445 125 max 49
Density kg/dm3 (20 oC) ASTM 4052 1,1 - 1,3 1,21
Sulfur content wt % ASTM 4294 0,05 max 0,01
Ash content wt % ASTM 482 0,25 max 0,07

» Bio-oil applications

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